There are five commonly-referred to types of business combinations known as mergers: conglomerate merger, horizontal merger, market extension merger, vertical merger and product extension merger. The term chosen to describe the merger depends on the economic function, purpose of the business transaction and relationship between the merging companies.
A merger between firms that are involved in totally unrelated business activities. There are two types of conglomerate mergers: pure and mixed. Pure conglomerate mergers involve firms with nothing in common, while mixed conglomerate mergers involve firms that are looking for product extensions or market extensions.
A leading manufacturer of athletic shoes, merges with a soft drink firm. The resulting company is faced with the same competition in each of its two markets after the merger as the individual firms were before the merger. One example of a conglomerate merger was the merger between the Walt Disney Company and the American Broadcasting Company.
A merger occurring between companies in the same industry. Horizontal merger is a business consolidation that occurs between firms who operate in the same space, often as competitors offering the same good or service. Horizontal mergers are common in industries with fewer firms, as competition tends to be higher and the synergies and potential gains in market share are much greater for merging firms in such an industry.
A merger between Coca-Cola and the Pepsi beverage division, for example, would be horizontal in nature. The goal of a horizontal merger is to create a new, larger organization with more market share. Because the merging companies' business operations may be very similar, there may be opportunities to join certain operations, such as manufacturing, and reduce costs.
Market Extension Mergers
A market extension merger takes place between two companies that deal in the same products but in separate markets. The main purpose of the market extension merger is to make sure that the merging companies can get access to a bigger market and that ensures a bigger client base.
A very good example of market extension merger is the acquisition of Eagle Bancshares Inc by the RBC Centura. Eagle Bancshares is headquartered at Atlanta, Georgia and has 283 workers. It has almost 90,000 accounts and looks after assets worth US $1.1 billion.
Eagle Bancshares also holds the Tucker Federal Bank, which is one of the ten biggest banks in the metropolitan Atlanta region as far as deposit market share is concerned. One of the major benefits of this acquisition is that this acquisition enables the RBC to go ahead with its growth operations in the North American market.
With the help of this acquisition RBC has got a chance to deal in the financial market of Atlanta , which is among the leading upcoming financial markets in the USA. This move would allow RBC to diversify its base of operations.
Product Extension Mergers
A product extension merger takes place between two business organizations that deal in products that are related to each other and operate in the same market. The product extension merger allows the merging companies to group together their products and get access to a bigger set of consumers. This ensures that they earn higher profits.
The acquisition of Mobilink Telecom Inc. by Broadcom is a proper example of product extension merger. Broadcom deals in the manufacturing Bluetooth personal area network hardware systems and chips for IEEE 802.11b wireless LAN.
Mobilink Telecom Inc. deals in the manufacturing of product designs meant for handsets that are equipped with the Global System for Mobile Communications technology. It is also in the process of being certified to produce wireless networking chips that have high speed and General Packet Radio Service technology. It is expected that the products of Mobilink Telecom Inc. would be complementing the wireless products of Broadcom.
A merger between two companies producing different goods or services for one specific finished product. A vertical merger occurs when two or more firms, operating at different levels within an industry's supply chain, merge operations. Most often the logic behind the merger is to increase synergies created by merging firms that would be more efficient operating as one.
A vertical merger joins two companies that may not compete with each other, but exist in the same supply chain. An automobile company joining with a parts supplier would be an example of a vertical merger. Such a deal would allow the automobile division to obtain better pricing on parts and have better control over the manufacturing process. The parts division, in turn, would be guaranteed a steady stream of business.
Synergy, the idea that the value and performance of two companies combined will be greater than the sum of the separate individual parts is one of the reasons companies merger.